Global marketing is “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives”.
Global marketing is also a field of study in general business management to provide valuable products, solutions and services to customers locally, nationally, internationally and worldwide.
International marketing is the export, franchising, joint venture or full direct entry of an organization’s product or services into another country. This can be achieved by exporting a company’s product into another location, entry through a joint venture with another firm in the target country, or foreign direct investment into the target country. The development of the marketing mix for that country is then required – international marketing. It can be as straightforward as using existing marketing strategies, mix and tools for export on the one side, to a complex relationship strategy including localization, local product offerings, pricing, production and distribution with customized promotions, offers, website, social media and leadership. Internationalization and international marketing meets the needs of selected foreign countries where a company’s value can be exported and there is inter-firm and firm learning, optimization and efficiency in economies of scale and scope.
A firm does not need to export or enter all world markets to be considered an international marketer. According to American Marketing Association (AMA) “International marketing is the multinational process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisations goals”.
- 1 Worldwide competition
- 2 Evolution to global marketing
- 3 Elements of the global marketing
- 3.1 Product
- 3.2 Price
- 3.3 Place
- 3.4 Promotion
- 4 Advantages and Disadvantages
- 4.1 Advantages
- 4.1.1 Reach
- 4.1.2 Scope
- 4.1.3 Interactivity
- 4.1.4 Immediacy
- 4.1.5 Demographics and targeting
- 4.1.6 Cross cultural negotiation
- 4.1.7 Adaptivity and closed loop marketing
- 4.2 Disadvantages
- 4.1 Advantages
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
One of the product categories in which global competition has been easy to track in U.S. is automotive sales. The increasing intensity of competition in global markets is a challenge facing companies at all stages of development in international markets. As markets open up, and become more integrated, the pace of change accelerates, technology shrinks distances between markets and reduces the scale advantages of large firms, new sources of competition emerge, and competitive pressures mount at all levels of the organization. Also, the threat of competition from companies in countries such as India, China, Malaysia, and Brazil is on the rise, as their own domestic markets are opening up to foreign competition, stimulating awareness of international market opportunities and of the need to be internationally competitive. Companies which previously focused on protected domestic markets are entering into markets in other countries, creating new sources of competition, often targeted to price-sensitive market segments.
Not only is competition intensifying for all firms regardless of their degree of global market involvement, but the basis for competition is changing. Competition continues to be market-based and ultimately relies on delivering superior value to consumers. However, success in global markets depends on knowledge accumulation and deployment.
Today, more and more marketing companies specialize in translating products from one country to another.
Evolution to global marketing
Global marketing is not a revolutionary shift, it is an evolutionary process. While the following does not apply to all companies, it does apply to most companies that begin as domestic-only companies. International marketing has intensified and is evident for approximately nearly all aspects of consumer’s daily life. Local regions or national boundaries no longer restricted to the competitive forces. To be successful in today’s globalized economy, it is a must for the companies to simultaneously be responsive to local as well as global market conditions and varying aspect’s related to the international marketing process. Hence, international marketing skills are an important ingredient for every company, whether or not it is currently involved in exporting the activities for the endorsement of the brand or the company.
The internationalized marketplace has been transformed very quickly in recent years by shifts in trading techniques, standards and practices. These changes have been reinforced and retained by new technologies and evolving the economic relationships between the companies and the organizations which are working for the trade across the globe. This assignment project work is just an attempt to get integrate these developments and attempts in the field of the market journalism into the burgeoning literature on international marketing process as well as on recent research findings on the International marketing. The research emphasis within the subject has evolved alongside changes in the stress given to key aspects of international trade market. The pre-occupation of early researchers with exports and selling is being replaced by a more balanced view which gives increasing weight to other aspects of international marketing such as licensing, joint ventures, and overseas subsidiaries.
In effect, the traditional ethnocentric conceptual view of international marketing trade is being counterbalanced by a more accurate global view of markets. This process of change is tracked in this paper and the growing importance of a strategic and organizational approach to international marketing is emphasized in this article theory. Focused attention is paid to the heterogeneous nature of international marketing process. The diversity of the globalized situations is matched by the variety of enterprises which play a vital part in the marketing exploration process. There is also explanation focuses on the matching of the available company resources and marketing goals in successful international marketing trade. The concept which unveils the paper brings out the importance of effective marketing procedures to success in international markets and trade over the international markets.
A marketing restricted to the political boundaries of a country is called ‘Domestic Marketing’. A company marketing only within its national boundaries only has to consider domestic competition. Even if that competition includes companies from foreign markets, it still only has to focus on the competition that exists in its home market. Products and services are developed for customers in the home market without thought of how the product or service could be used in other markets. All marketing decisions are made at headquarters.
The biggest obstacle these marketers face is being blindsided by emerging global marketers. Because domestic marketers do not generally focus on the changes in the global marketplace, they may not be aware of a potential competitor who is a market leader on three continents until they simultaneously open 20 stores in the Northeastern U.S. These marketers can be considered ethnocentric as they are most concerned with how they are perceived in their home country.
The domestic market is a large market that every nation needs. These markets are all restricted to be under control of certain boundaries in that company or country. This type of marketing is the type of marketing that takes place in the headquarters. In domestic markets it helps reduce the cost of competition. By reducing competition the company has a better shot of being more successful in the long run. Also if the company’s competition is not a big factor that will affect their business, they have a good shot at making prices higher and people will still purchase that product.
A firm operating in a domestic market also gets the opportunity to operate in different areas and this gives the company an opportunity to have bigger markets to advertise to. Even in domestic markets, businesses are still trying to trade with each other to promote their business to other businesses in the area. An advantage to marketing domestically is that the firm may be entitled to tax benefits for offering jobs to the nation and for giving people opportunities for work. A firm that markets domestically helps countries by offering more jobs, bringing in additional business to the market and stimulates trading within the market.
Global marketing is a firm’s ability to market to almost all countries on the planet. With extensive reach, the need for a firm’s product or services is established. The global firm retains the capability, reach, knowledge, staff, skills, insights, and expertise to deliver value to customers worldwide. The firm understands the requirement to service customers locally with global standard solutions or products, and localizes that product as required to maintain an optimal balance of cost, efficiency, customization and localization in a control-customization continuum to best meet local, national and global requirements to position itself against or with competitors, partners, alliances, substitutes and defend against new global and local market entrants per country, region or city. The firm will price its products appropriately worldwide, nationally and locally, and promote, deliver access and information to its customers in the most cost-effective way. The firm also needs to understand, research, measure and develop loyalty for its brand and global brand equity (stay on brand) for the long term.
At this level, global marketing and global branding are integrated. Branding involves a structured process of analyzing “soft” assets and “hard” assets of a firm’s resources. The strategic analysis and development of a brand includes customer analysis (trends, motivation, unmet needs, segmentation), competitive analysis (brand image/brand identity, strengths, strategies, vulnerabilities), and self-analysis (existing brand image, brand heritage, strengths/capabilities, organizational values).
Further, Global brand identity development is the process establishing brands of products, the firm, and services locally and worldwide with consideration for scope, product attributes, quality/value, uses, users and country of origin; organizational attributes (local vs. global); personality attributes (genuine, energetic, rugged, elegant) and brand customer relationships (friend, adviser, influencer, trusted source); and importantly symbols, trademarks metaphors, imagery, mood, photography and the company’s brand heritage. In establishing a global brand, the brand proposition (functional benefits, emotional benefits and self-expressive benefits are identified, localized and streamlined to be consistent with a local, national, international and global point of view. The brand developed needs to be credible.
A global marketing and branding implementation system distributes marketing assets (website, social media, Google PPC, PDFs, sales collateral, press junkets, kits, product samples, news releases, local mini-sites, flyers, posters, alliance and partner materials), affiliate programs and materials, internal communications, newsletters, investor materials, event promotions and trade shows to deliver an integrated, comprehensive and focused communication, access and value to the customers, that can be tracked to build loyalty, case studies and further establish the company’s global marketing and brand footprint.
Elements of the global marketing
Not only do standard marketing approaches, strategies, tactics and processes apply, global marketing requires an understanding of global finance, global operations and distribution, government relations, global human capital management and resource allocation, distributed technology development and management, global business logic, interfirm and global competitiveness, exporting, joint ventures, foreign direct investments and global risk management.
The standard “Four P’s” of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion are all affected as a company moves through the five evolutionary phases to become a global company. Ultimately, at the global marketing level, a company trying to speak with one voice is faced with many challenges when creating a worldwide marketing plan. Unless a company holds the same position against its competition in all markets (market leader, low cost, etc.) it is impossible to launch identical marketing plans worldwide.
A global company is one that can create a single product and only have to tweak elements for different markets. For example, Coca-Cola uses two formulas (one with sugar, one with corn syrup) for all markets. The product packaging in every country incorporates the contour bottle design and the dynamic ribbon in some way, shape, or form. However, the bottle can also include the country’s native language and is the same size as other beverage bottles or cans in that same country.
Luxury products, high-tech products, and new innovations are the most common products in the global marketplace. They are easier to market in a standardized way than other products because there are no traditional cultural values attached to their meanings.
Price will always vary from market to market. Price is affected by many variables: cost of product development (produced locally or imported), cost of ingredients, cost of delivery (transportation, tariffs, etc.), and much more. Additionally, the product’s position in relation to the competition influences the ultimate profit margin. Whether this product is considered the high-end, expensive choice, the economical, low-cost choice, or something in-between helps determine the price point.
How the product is distributed is also a country-by-country decision influenced by how the competition is being offered to the target market. Using Coca-Cola as an example again, not all cultures use vending machines. In the United States, beverages are sold by the pallet via warehouse stores. In India, this is not an option. Placement decisions must also consider the product’s position in the market place. For example, a high-end product would not want to be distributed via a dollar store in the United States. Conversely, a product promoted as the low-cost option in France would find limited success in a pricey boutique.
After product research, development and creation, promotion (specifically advertising) is generally the largest line item in a global company’s marketing budget. At this stage of a company’s development, integrated marketing is the goal. The global corporation seeks to reduce costs, minimize redundancies in personnel and work, maximize speed of implementation, and to speak with one voice. If the goal of a global company is to send the same message worldwide, then delivering that message in a relevant, engaging, and cost-effective way is the challenge.
Effective global advertising techniques do exist. The key is testing advertising ideas using a marketing research system proven to provide results that can be compared across countries. The ability to identify which elements or moments of an ad are contributing to that success is how economies of scale are maximized. Market research measures such as flow of attention, flow of emotion and branding moments provide insights into what is working in an ad in any country because the measures are based on visual, not verbal, elements of the ad.
Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages of global market include:
- Economies of scale in production and distribution
- Lower marketing costs
- Power and scope
- Consistency in brand image
- Ability to leverage good ideas quickly and efficiently
- Uniformity of marketing practices
- Helps to establish relationships outside of the “political arena”
- Helps to encourage ancillary industries to be set up to cater for the needs of the global player
- Benefits of eMarketing over traditional marketing
The nature of the internet means businesses now have a truly global reach. While traditional media costs limit this kind of reach to huge multinationals, eMarketing opens up new avenues for smaller businesses, on a much smaller budget, to access potential consumers from all over the world.Less advertising costs.
Internet marketing allows the marketer to reach consumers in a wide range of ways and enables them to offer a wide range of products and services. eMarketing includes, among other things, information management, public relations, customer service and sales. With the range of new technologies becoming available all the time, this scope can only grow.
Whereas traditional marketing is largely about getting a brand’s message out there, eMarketing facilitates conversations between companies and consumers. With a two way communication channel, companies can feed off of the responses of their consumers, making them more dynamic and adaptive.
Internet marketing is able to provide an immediate impact. With traditional print media, it’s not that easy for the consumer to take the step from hearing about a product to actual acquisition. With eMarketing, it’s easy to make that step as simple as possible, meaning that the product is just a few mouse clicks away. All of this can happen regardless of normal office hours. Effectively, Internet marketing makes business hours 24 hours per day, seven days per week for every week of the year. By closing the gap between providing information and eliciting a consumer reaction, the buying cycle is sped up.
Demographics and targeting
The demographics of the Internet are a marketer’s dream. Internet users, considered as a group, have greater buying power and could be considered a population group skewed towards the middle-classes. Buying power is not all though. The nature of the Internet is such that its users will tend to organize themselves into focused groupings. Marketers can easily find access to niche markets they wish to target. Marketing messages are most effective when they are presented directly to the audience most likely to be interested. The Internet creates the perfect environment for niche marketing to targeted groups.
Teenagers, for example, share common characteristics even if they are from different cultures and nations. This youth market generally has more money to spend and is affluent. However, this market is difficult to target because they are always one step ahead – they are more aware of marketing tactics and are very cynical. They are trendsetters that define themselves in opposition to the establishment. Since the youth market is growing, it would benefit the company to target them, as it would bring in more revenue. Youths are also highly active on social media and in the recent years, many advertising campaigns have gone viral through social media. With the constant flow of media and information, brands continue to increase their awareness, and increase consumer consumption. Targeting the youth market is beneficial because they are more open-minded, have international contacts, and travel more.
Cross cultural negotiation
The dimensions of culture, such as power distance, the context of the culture and the local work ethic is an area of marketing and social science that is closely related to Global marketing. The ability to discern cultural differences through initial assessment of another market is considered a critical enabler to progress in Global marketing.
Effective marketing requires adapting to cultural values, and Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions theory helps compare practices of consumption and consumer motivations for buying products and services. When a company can advertise effectively to its foreign markets, it brings benefits to both sides. The company gains more revenue and relations, and the foreign markets have access to better products and services. Hofstede, through the five cultural dimensions, reveals how cultures are different and value different things. Typically, the west is different from the rest. The west typically values individualism, high need for autonomy, modernity, and a more explicit use of sexuality whereas eastern values include family oriented, respect for elderly, submission to authority, traditional collectivism, and Confucianism. When designing an advertisement, cultural value differences must be considered to be effective since advertising campaigns do not work the same way in different countries.
Adaptivity and closed loop marketing
Closed Loop Marketing requires the constant measurement and analysis of the
results of marketing initiatives. By continuously tracking the response and effectiveness
of a campaign, the marketer can be far more dynamic in adapting to consumers’
wants and needs.
With eMarketing, responses can be analyzed in real-time and campaigns can be
tweaked continuously. Combined with the immediacy of the Internet as a medium,
this means that there’s minimal advertising spend wasted on less than effective
Maximum marketing efficiency from eMarketing creates new opportunities to seize
strategic competitive advantages.
The combination of all these factors results in an improved ROI and ultimately, more
customers, happier customers and an improved bottom line.
- Differences in consumer needs, wants, and usage patterns for products
- Differences in consumer response to marketing mix elements
- Differences in brand and product development and the competitive environment
- Differences in the legal environment, some of which may conflict with those of the home market
- Differences in the institutions available, some of which may call for the creation of entirely new ones (e.g. infrastructure)
- Differences in administrative procedures
- Differences in product placement.
- Differences in the administrative procedures and product placement can occur
Neoliberal economists advocated reliance on markets to keep the international economy healthy and growing. They championed was the liberation of international currency. The market should work but doesn’t. It’s out of the hands of the public and belongs to the above mentioned multinational corporate title-holders. Popular support position involved above all else a cultural campaign couched in terms of freedom.
- Advertising research
- International marketing
- Marketing research
- Nation branding
- wikt:Picture Sorts
- Visual marketing
- Hollensen, Svend (2017) Global Marketing, 7th edition, Pearson, ISBN 978-1-292-10011-1 .
- Svante Andersson & Göran Svensson (editors) (2009) Global Marketing: think globally and act locally, Lund: Studentlitteratur, ISBN 978-91-44-05555-8 .
- Kotabe, Masaki and Helsen, Kristiaan (2004) Global Marketing Management, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-23062-6 .
- Philip Kotler & Keller (2005) Marketing Management, 12th edition, ISBN 81-203-2799-3 .
- Theodore Levitt (May–June 1983) “The Globalization of Markets”, Harvard Business Review 61: 92-10.
- Young, Charles E. (April 2005) Advertising Research Handbook, Ideas in Flight, Seattle, ISBN 0-9765574-0-1.
- Media related to Global marketing at Wikimedia Commons